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UNIVERSITY OF WROCLAW RESEARCH UNIVERSITY

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The University of Wrocław is unique. On the one hand, it is rooted in the tradition of the Jesuit university founded by Emperor Leopold I in 1702 in Breslau. However, on the other hand, its heritage was brought by Polish migrants in 1945 who once worked at Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv, established in 1661. The fusion of these two academic cultures led to a community characterised by the cultivation of rationality and intellectual discipline in the pursuit of the truth. Nevertheless, no less important to us are the concepts of innovation and openness and the development of international cooperation for the civilisational and cultural development of humanity.

At the University of Wrocław, we focus our research on areas of crucial importance to the modern world. For example, we search for effective therapies in the face of the growing number of civilisation and cancer diseases; we try to predict and prevent the effects of natural disasters and biodiversity degradation; we cooperate on the development of the mathematical foundations of artificial intelligence, we research the development of new materials that meet the needs of industry and support the growth of civilisation.

Finally, we analyse the functioning of multicultural communities in order to formulate recommendations and policies for the public sector. We collaborate with the world’s leading universities in all these fields.
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Additionally, promoting cultural and social development in our near and distant surroundings is also very important to us. As part of our mission, we cooperate closely with museums, cultural centres and schools. We take care of the heritage of the previous generations entrusted into our care by providing access to architectural and artistic monuments, both in the virtual and real world.
We cooperate with the surrounding social organisations, 
NGOs and local governments to support the building of a rational, open and democratic society.

Our teaching is closely linked to these activities. Students work closely with lecturers in the framework of their current research. As a result, under the guidance of their teachers, they acquire knowledge resulting from their exposure to the latest research techniques. Moreover, at the same time, we emphasise enabling them to apply their skills and knowledge in the professions they aspire to work in. In university teaching, the latest research is the starting point for educating young people who are open to the future, who know the world and who are prepared to work in it for the benefit of us all.

The University of Wrocław aspires to be a research university. However, 
only in the sense described above – a community focused on conducting top-quality research for the benefit of the entire environment.

Thus, at our 
university, research, teaching, and cooperation with the environment are intertwined to form a multi-coloured picture, a reflection of our community’s
multicultural and multi-ethnic past and present.

Professor Przemysław Wiszewski
Rector of the University of Wrocław
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HUMAN - CITY - ENVIRONMENT

The interdisciplinary Priority Research Area integrates
scientists in the field of earth and environmental sciences
as well as sociology. The development of civilisation forces
people to face the problems of rapidly dwindling natural
resources, accelerating climate changes, and increasing
environmental pollution. As 80% of the EU population 
will be living in cities by 2050, a comprehensive approach
to the relationship between the changing environment
and the quality of life and adaptation to the changing environment in the economic and social area is necessary.
PRA responds to the key challenge of the Horizon Europe
programme, including increasing the resilience of society
and infrastructure to climate change and environmental
pollution. It examines the effects of processes such as climate change, migrations, changing water resources, soil pollution, air quality and noise, taking into account cultural heritage and social aspects for the process of sustainable development. The PRA deals with current, priority scientific problems of interdisciplinary nature, the solution of which requires the cooperation of scientists from the earth and environmental sciences and social sciences.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Functioning and impact of political borders, the development of border areas and cross-border cooperation, as well as regional and local development. 
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Mateusz Strzelecki’s recent research concentrates on the effects of tsunamis and storms on the paraglacial coastal environments of Arctic and sub-Arctic regions and the prediction of which sites are most vulnerable to their impact in a warmer future. These ambitious objectives will result in a state-ofthe- art study of the extreme processes shaping cold region coasts, which – in addition to the progress of paraglacial coastal research – will transfer new knowledge to help Arctic communities reduce the geohazard risk as most of their activities are concentrated along the coast.

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Although the Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management started its operations on 1 September 2006, it originates from the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the University of Wrocław. As a result, the developing natural sciences – biology, biochemistry and biotechnology, geography and geology – became independent and formed separate faculties.

The strength of the faculty lies in the high level of its academic staff, thanks to whom the graduates are successful at home and abroad. Teaching is linked to research practice through close cooperation with global scientific and research institutions. The study programmes have been adapted to the requirements of the labour market. They are designed to provide a complete education, enabling the students to gain a profession while – at the same time – providing them with the opportunity to develop their individual interests.
The main aim of education is to equip the students with knowledge, skills and social competences.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Hydroinformatics, unmanner aerial vehicles, close-range photogrammetry and remote sensing, geoinformatics, analysis of aerial imagery, statistics and time series.
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A water bath is a device present in almost every laboratory, necessary for many chemical and biological analyses. Adam Rajsz has just developed a portable version.

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The inventors of the water bath from the University of Wrocław deal with each of these problematic issues. Biologists dr Adam Rajsz and professor Bronisław Wojtuń from the University of Wrocław, working at the Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection at the Faculty of Biological Sciences, investigate the ecology of plant communities in the high-mountain ecosystems of the Karkonosze Mountains, not only in the  aboratory but also in situ. When measuring the activity of one of the enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism in plants, nitrate reductase, they need to incubate plant fragments immersed in test tubes with a buffer at a trictly defined temperature and darkness level. Transporting plant samples from the Karkonosze Mountains to the laboratory, e.g. on ice, does not make much sense. Several hours after collection, the measured enzyme activity does not correspond to the actual values found at the original site. In order to be able to achieve the assumed research goals, Adam Rajsz constructed a portable water bath, with which researchers can carry out in situ the determination of nitrate reductase activity – directly in the place of the natural occurrence of the studied plants at altitudes of over 1,400 m above the sea level.
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Researchers from the Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, under the leadership of professor Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman, examine the ecological phenomena of common and endangered aquatic and terrestrial plants.
The methods used in the projects 
include biotests, bioindication and ecotoxicological models applied to the most effective bioindicators of environmental pollution. The results of the chemical and ecological plant investigations are evaluated with sophisticated statistical programmes (neural networks, data mining, multivariate exploratory techniques), published in international indexed journals and applied environmental protection practices.

Changes to the environment resulting from chemical pollution can be evaluated 
thanks to the data (background values for metals in bryophytes) collected from the areas which are relatively free from pollution, such as Svalbard,
Switzerland, Spain and the Netherlands. During both field studies and laboratory experiments, scientists examine common, invasive, rare and endangered species, contributing to the extension of knowledge of their biogeochemistry as well as habitat requirements and tolerance. The results of their studies are then computed using advanced statistical analyses (such as neural networks, data mining, multivariate exploratory techniques and redundancy analysis) and ecological modelling. Additionally, they are interested in testing and developing novel indices. Some of the results can be practically applied and may be utilised in the biomonitoring of trace metal pollution as well as in the application of macrophytes in phytoremediation. They also form the basis for the effective actions in environmental protection.
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Consisting of four institutes and two chairs, the Faculty of Social Sciences is one of the largest faculties at the University of Wrocław. It has a long history
of offering bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral study programmes in Polish and English. Among the offered programmes are the Erasmus Mundus programmes:
Global Studies – the European Perspective and MITRA as well as a number of double-degree programmes together with partner universities abroad.

Research at the Faculty of Social Sciences is conducted by researchers in four institutes – the Institute of International Studies, the Institute of Political Sciences, the Institute of Sociology and the Institute of Philosophy and two chairs – the Chair of European Studies and the Chair of Logic and Science Methodology. They cover a broad range of areas in the field of social sciences, i.e., research in political science, social policy, international relations, international security, global studies, European studies and international communication. In addition, in the field of empirical and theoretical sociology, research is conducted concerning various problems of sociology. In the discipline of philosophy, the focus is on Christian, modern, classical, German and contemporary philosophy.
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She analyses urbanisation as a decision-making process by people in changing conditions defined by the governance strategies of municipalities and market actors responsible for housing provisions.

She focuses on 
the concurring nature of suburbanisation and re-urbanisation and points to the role of the quality of urban life and suburban life as essential triggers for the decision to move in or out of the city and as the basis to formulate specific expectations regarding urban and suburban life. Using qualitative methods for her research, she offers a comparative perspective of individual life stories and macrostructural processes in cities in various socio-cultural and economic contexts. Moreover, she can point out the specificity of suburbanisation
(and now re-urbanisation) in Poland.
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The change of climate conditions is due to a significant transformation of the natural environment. This is reflected by numerous intense and extreme events as well as in a change in the character of secular processes, which occurs more slowly, but over a longer period and on a larger scale. Environmental researchers’ attention is being drawn to polar and mountain areas, where the effects of climate warming are most strongly visible.

The tradition 
of studying polar and mountain areas is deeply ingrained in the University of Wrocław. Research projects used to be led by geography professors - Aleksander Kosiba (1901-1981) and Alfred Jahn (1915-1999), who came from Jan Kazimierz University in Lviv and who participated in the expedition to Greenland in 1937 and made a significant contribution to the creation of the Polish Arctic research programme.

One of the topics most intensively developed here was periglacial geomorphology concerning land forms and geological processes in the cold zone at the foreland of glaciers and ice sheets. The studies focused on the functioning of permafrost, i.e. perennially frozen ground and the active layer, which thaws during Arctic summers. Permafrost, which covers one-fifth of the northern hemisphere’s land surface, is now drastically shrinking, releasing greenhouse gases trapped in the lithosphere into the atmosphere.
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His team analyses the influence of various factors, e.g. the degree of biomass maturity, the fibre content and the method of biomass pretreatment on the biogas
yield as well as the methane content in it. The members of the team are the authors of a patent concerning the method of preparing meadow biomass for biogas production. They also use the isotopic approach to study the quantitative and qualitative dynamics of greenhouse gases emitted from meadows in relation to the microbial activity of the soil.
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Adam Mrozowicki is a principal investigator of the project entitled “COV-WORK: Socio-economic awareness, work experiences and coping strategies of Poles in the context of the post-pandemic crisis” (funded by the National Science Centre, OPUS competition (19th edition). It will be carried out within a consortium led by the Institute of Sociology of the University of Wrocław and partnered by the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Economic Sociology of the Warsaw School of Economics (head: Jan Czarzasty, PhD) from 2021 to 2024.

The project will also involve cooperation with the team of professor Valeria Pulignano from the Centre for Sociological Research of the Catholic University of Leuven that is implementing the ERC project ResPecTMe (Researching Precariousness across the Paid/Unpaid Work Continuum).
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Małgorzata Werner is a member of the Atmospheric Sciences Team which developed an advanced system of atmospheric process modelling and monitoring operated in the Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection at the University of Wrocław.
This system is an integrated tool; optimised 
for analysing the processes taking place in the atmospheric boundary layer, with a particular emphasis on air pollution concentrations. State of the- art atmospheric chemical transport models are used to provide air pollution forecasts and are made available for a large community on the website: prognozy.uni.wroc.pl. 
Modelling at a very high 
spatial resolution of tens of meters, modelling allergenic pollen and data assimilation techniques from surface and satellite observations are the most urgent research tasks that are currently being undertaken by Maciej Kryza and Małgorzata Werner.
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Light pollution also brightens the night sky, reducing the visibility of astronomical objects. This makes astronomical observations difficult or even impossible.

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Light pollution is one of the research and public outreach areas at the Institute of Astronomy of the University of Wrocław. A network of automatic stations, named ALPS (All-sky Light Pollution Survey), was created for this task. Artificial light is one of the most important inventions and an element of modern civilisation. However, artificial light at night (ALAN), especially in outdoor spaces, is also a form of environmental pollution. ALAN introduction into the environment causes serious adverse effects, affecting the essential behaviour and processes of living organisms, including humans. This new form of pollution is called light pollution.

Light pollution also brightens the night sky, reducing the visibility of astronomical objects. This makes astronomical observations difficult or even impossible. It deprives all of us of the starry sky, which has been inspiring humans since prehistoric times. Thus, the dark night sky is both an important scientific resource and a cultural heritage of humankind.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Economic geology.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Earth and environmental sciences, environmental mineralogy and geochemistry, soil pollution, petrographic studies of rocks and synthetic materials, archaeometry.
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FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS

According to the mission statement of the Faculty of Chemistry, one of the most important goals “is to strive for excellence in both research and teaching. Student education is based on the results of contemporary scientific research and enables students to use the best research tools. Our mission is to provide the students of all degrees the opportunity to acquire expert knowledge in chemistry and to develop critical, independent thinking skills”.

Therefore, specialisation classes have been developed, considering the research topics carried out at the faculty, which guarantees a high scientific level of classes and a strong connection with scientific research.
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During the development and periodic verification of the programmes, the opinions and suggestions of the representatives of the socio-economic environment cooperating with the faculty were taken into account. This translates into the employment of the graduates of the Faculty of Chemistry by local companies and enterprises in the broadly defined chemical industry.

The study programme includes English-language classes and modules of 
classes in English. In addition, the students have the opportunity to attend lectures delivered by guest lecturers from abroad. All these activities help
prepare the students to take part in studies in foreign centres within the framework of international exchange programmes and open up the possibility for the graduates to take up professional work abroad. The education programme also includes the possibility for the students to participate in specialised courses organised by external companies. Thus, it is possible to achieve additional competences important for future professional work.
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This priority research area focuses mainly on fundamental properties of matter but the results provide a conceptual framework for designing new materials. Leading areas of investigation in recent years have covered various aspects of modern materials science:

• Structure and reactivity of coordination, organic and organometallic compounds with applications in bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry. Design of new supramolecular materials and materials with spin-crossover characteristics.

• Chemistry and stereochemistry of organic compounds, including the synthesis, reactivity and molecular structure of porphyrins and porphyrinoids, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds, peptides and proteins, peptidomimetics, bioconjugates, polyynes and halopolyynes, bis- and polyazoles.

• Design and testing of homogeneous, heterogenized and nanoparticle catalysts, reactions involving ionic
liquids and molten salts.

• Design, theoretical calculations and synthesis of biologically active compounds, including drugs, peptides, aminosugars and their derivatives. Research on the role of metal ions in biological systems and interactions of metal ions with humic substances.

• Preparation and characterisation of the properties of new phosphor materials, ferroelectrics, magnetic materials, molecular crystals, molecular-ionic and liquid crystals.
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Using advanced sometimes sophisticated instruments, scientists try to assess the potential of materials produced in their laboratories.

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The Luminescent Material Research Group, led by Professor Eugeniusz
Zych, work with light-emitting materials and chemical compounds. Such materials, often termed phosphors, convert one type of electromagnetic radiation into another type of radiation, often just visible photons as well as infrared or UV radiation. Using advanced sometimes sophisticated instruments, scientists try to assess the potential of materials produced in their laboratories.
For such purposes, the fabricated phosphors are sometimes frozen to the temperature of liquid helium, 4.2 K (about -269.2 °C) or heated up to 1000 °C. This allows determining and understanding their properties and, more importantly, defining ways of designing materials of required properties for novel lighting, safe medical diagnosis, precise temperature measuring, efficient catalysis of industrial processes and many others in which controlled light generation is needed.

The researchers of the Luminescent Material Research Group are thus developing solutions that both show where the cancer cell is and destroy this cell by using radiation from the so-called ultraviolet C range, i.e., the most energetic part of the ultraviolet. Research conducted by chemists from the University of Wrocław, led by Eugeniusz Zych, is therefore heading towards developing a non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells that will possibly substantially impact on the medicine application.
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Today, Latos-Grażyński’s team examine systems in which pairs of porphyrins join together to transfer the electrons or photons of light!

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Everyone has heard of haemoglobin. The haeme found in it is a porphyrin-iron compound named ferroporphyrin. Ferroporphyrins are also involved
in respiration or in limiting the toxicity of substances harmful to our bodies. Lechosław Latos-Grażyński studies their biochemistry; he studies how they bind oxygen, how they participate in the processes related to the synthesis of new compounds and what degradation processes they undergo. He is one of the world’s leading experts in organic chemistry. He is the author of almost 300 publications on porphyrins, which have appeared in world-renowned chemical journals and have been cited over 12,000 times (Google Scholar). In addition, he is the winner of the Prize of the Foundation for Polish Science (the so-called “Polish Nobel Prize”) (1998) as well as the Prize of the Minister of Education and Science for the overall research achievements (2021).

An important role in Latos-Grażynski’s scientific activities has been cooperation with the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of California (Davis) for over twenty years. He is one of the most cited chemists working in Poland. His research has entered the canon of world scientific literature and he has been honoured by the international community with numerous awards: the Alexander von Humboldt Research Award (2005) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Invitation Fellowship for Research in Japan (2010), among others. In 2014, the Polish Chemical Society awarded him Jędrzej Śniadecki Medal, which is given for outstanding scientific achievements of global significance in chemistry.
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Bartosz Szyszko defended his doctoral dissertation in 2014, working in Porphyrin Chemistry Group under the supervision of professor Lechosław Latos-Grażyński. His research at that time focused on the construction of molecules merging the structural features of two fundamental classes of organic molecules, i.e. porphyrins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Bartosz’s research interests focus on broadly understood macrocyclic chem-istry and organic supramolecular chemistry, which includes designing new acene-porphyrin hybrids and expanded carbaporphyrinoids. Thanks to the funding granted by the National Science Centre (SONATA BIS grant), Bartosz is setting up a new research group at the Faculty of Chemistry and launching a new research programme with the focal point being the application of sub-component self-assembly method to the construction of molecular links and knots – fascinating compounds which can be treated as the manifestations of macroscopic knotted objects (e.g. sailing knots) at a molecular level.

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Our project focuses on the SmtB protein as well as on BigR4 – a recently identified homologue from M. smegmatis – a model non-path-ogenic organism commonly used for biological research. The main goal is to answer the questions: how do mutations in the zinc-binding domain of the SmtB protein affect the protein itself, its ability to bind zinc and its binding to bacterial DNA?
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Our study will use both zinc-binding domains and native proteins to deter-mine the thermodynamic properties of zinc complexes, the structural-dy-namic behaviour of the protein when exposed to zinc as well as the binding sites of the SmtB protein to the bacterial chromosome (DNA). This genuinely interdisciplinary approach will allow us to describe in detail the processes involved in maintaining zinc homeostasis in Mycobacterium strains.

We will begin our project by studying zinc complexes with binding domains to me-ticulously describe their thermodynamic properties. The next step will be to focus on the expression of SmtB/BigR4 proteins using E. coli strains; these proteins will be used in both thermodynamic and NMR studies. With the mag-netic resonance spectroscopy results, we hope to obtain the first structure of the SmtB protein (or BigR4, whichever proves more stable after the opti-misation process) that has never before been published. The final stage will involve the microbiological studies using genetically modified strains of M. smegmatis. To ensure the full feasibility of the project thus composed, we will execute it in close collaboration with the Faculty of Biotechnology of the University of Wrocław and the University of Warwick. Using different yet entirely complementary scientific disciplines in the project will allow us to fully describe the SmtB/BigR4 system in the dangerous human pathogen – in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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The synthesis of new chemical compounds is always a big challenge. At first glance, simple molecular structures often require multi-step synthesis.

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For organic molecules having multiple C-H bonds, selectivity is an extremely important issue. Using pre-coordination, it can be controlled by the so-called directing group. An extremely rare reaction of C-H bond functionalisation in beta position of aliphatic amines became the object of our interest. It should be noted that a structural motif having functional groups in this position is often found in compounds of great pharmaceutical interest. Using direct C-H functionalisation, such compounds can be obtained from simple aliphatic amines such as ephedrine and amphetamine from isopropylamine, salbutamol and synephrine from ethylamine.

The main objective of our research is to develop a general method for C-H 
functionalisation of primary aliphatic amines in beta position. The method is not intended to replace the traditional methods of obtaining known pharmaceuticals that have been used for years. Instead, the methodology under development opens a unique synthetic route leading to a wealth of new compounds with a high diversity of structural motifs, which may be important in the context of drug discovery. An example of the use of such methodology is the method we have developed for the synthesis of phenethylamine derivatives from primary amines and the functionalisation of N-arylpyrazoles.
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His main research areas are Computational astrophysics, high-energy astrophysics phenomenology and Boltzmann neutrino transport. The research grants from which Fischer benefits are both international and Polish. Especially interesting was the Swiss grant “Core collapse supernovae of massive stars as laboratories to probe matter at extreme conditions”.

Fischer attracted attention with his research: “Massive star explosion as signals of extreme states of matter”.
The development of a novel multi-purpose equation for state of hot and dense matter for astrophysical application, featuring a hadron-quark matter phase transition, to the discovery of a novel explosion mechanism for massive stars; the neutrino signal from such supernova explosions as smoking gun-signature for the presence of quark matter at high densities, complementary to the gravitational wave signature from binary neutron star mergers.
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He is currently working on several major international projects. Among them it is worth mentioning his work on nuclear matter under extreme conditions at the NICA energies. The project is devoted to investigate matter under extreme conditions in heavy ion collisions and in the interior of compact stars. Within the framework of the project, models of the quark-hadron matter equation of state will be constructed, their properties and characteristic observational effects for experiments at energies achievable on the NICA complex will be studied.

Currently his main research areas are quantum field theory for matter under extreme conditions of high temperatures, densities and strong fields; forma-tion and dissociation of bound states and quantum condensates under extreme conditions; investigation of the phase diagram of dense had-ronic matter and QCD phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions and in As-trophysics and last but not least: pair production (Schwinger mechanism) in strong fields and applications to high-intensity lasers.


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In 1945, the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry was established. In 1995, it was then divided into two faculties: the Faculty of Chemistry and the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics. From the structure of the latter, the institutes of Mathematics and Computer Science were separated in 1996 to form the Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science. After these institutes had separated, the former Faculty of Mathematics and Physics was renamed the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy.

The research conducted at the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy is organised around three subfields: astronomy, experimental physics and theoretical physics. The scientific study topics at the Institute of Astronomy cover heliophysics (which concerns the Sun) and astrophysics (which concerns other stars).

The research projects include: sounding interiors of stars by means of asteroseismic methods, big data analyses with the use of neuron networks and monitoring the light pollution and its influence on ecosystems in the framework
of the ALPS project (All-sky Light Pollution Survey). Furthermore, the University of Wrocław has recently collaborated with the European Space Agency and this offers new opportunities for technological development in
this field.
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The Institute of Experimental Physics has a particular interest in experimental solid-state physics, atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics, physics of medium and high energy and the methodology of educational
physics. The recent research projects focus on understanding the behaviour of high-temperature superconductors and on the elucidation of the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. This includes studies on the properties of high-entropy alloys, which are new materials of unique microstructure.

Other studies concern new approaches to mitigating iron

corrosion, which may pave the way to a more efficient exploration of new environments or even space. Many recent projects are carried out in close cooperation with leading international laboratories, such as CERN.

The research carried out at the Institute of Theoretical Physics covers subjects ranging from atomic and nuclear physics, through physics of condensed matter, cosmology, gravitation and black holes, to the phenomenology of elementary particles and fields. Computer simulations are essential in research of this kind as they help model and predict the development of physical processes.
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HUMANS BETWEEN NATURE AND CULTURE

Interrelations between nature and culture in humans — on different levels and from different disciplinary perspectives, from cells to societies and from biology to psychology. Until recently, scholarly research was based on the presumption that some aspects of human life belong exclusively to nature while some others to culture and that the research methods valid for one of those domains are invalid for the other. Today, it is agreed that such presumptions are untenable and that interdisciplinary research demands transgressing the narrow theoretical and methodological confines of particular disciplines.
The Priority Research Area (further PRA) Humans Between Nature and Culture contributes to this by showing interrelations between nature and culture in such fundamental dimensions of human life as sensory and chemosensory perception, sexuality, morality, creativity, communication, education, literature and art. Taking into account theories of cultural, biological and cultural-genetic evolution, the PRA shows those interrelations on various levels and from various perspectives: from cells to individuals and entire societies and from biology to psychology and literary studies.
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Bacteriophages are extremely precise weapons against bacteria as they attack only specific species, thus protecting the human microbiota when applied as a therapeutic agent.

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The Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology is a modern and dynamic research and teaching unit, which can boast an impressive number of publications and an unparalleled number of national and international grants and collaborations. The young and active team, led by professor Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa, deals with the most clinically relevant drug resistance aspects in bacterial pathogens. The DPBI members conduct their research in microbiology, immunology and virology, encompassing the biology of dangerous bacterial species from the ESKAPE group and potential methods of their control with particular emphasis on bacteriophages and other non-traditional antimicrobials.

The DPBI is currently working on the antibacterial activity of phage-derived enzymes such as endolysins and depolymerases, which can kill bacteria in seconds (or effectively “disarm” pathogens), helping our immune system fight infection. Furthermore, phages and their enzymes can be successfully used along with traditional antibiotics, which is confirmed by experimental therapies that have already been implemented.

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The Faculty is a unit that unites institutes and chairs conducting research and teaching activity in the field of historical, cultural and psychological foundations of society functioning and the ways of shaping its members’ worldview through education. What has always been in the centre of interest of the Faculty’s researchers and students has been human beings as individuals and members of society. Hence, an open, modern anthropological and humanistic view of the surrounding world is a value that the Faculty has a duty to promote within the university and in society. 

The faculty’s mission is to support the rational search for the truth about the human past and the psychological and cultural conditions of its activity, development and education as well as to participate in shaping culture to support sustainable social development. The basic values implemented in the course of research and education are freedom of research, teaching and expression of opinions, not restricted by political or religious considerations.

In order to pursue these values, the faculty supports research of the highest quality, individual and collaborative, interdisciplinary and international, provides research and teaching staff of the highest quality, ensuring appropriate conditions for their development, conducts education through close contact between students and top-class researchers, emphasising the importance of the unity of science and education, actively engages in the social and cultural life of the regional, national and world community.
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Maciej Karwowski’s scholarly interests and achievements focus on the psychology of creativity, especially on studies showing the importance of beliefs about people’s creative abilities for undertaking (or abandoning) creative activity.
Karwowski is not only the author of frequently used tools to measure beliefs about people’s creativity and meta-analyses showing the relationship between creativity, self-image and personality but – most importantly – he is also the creator of a theoretical model capturing creativity as a causal activity, the main author of a concluding chapter on this topic published in the recent Cambridge Handbook of Creativity and, finally, the editor of a monograph summarising the current state of knowledge of the regulatory role of beliefs. Paying attention to the role of (motivational) beliefs and proposing a coherent and initially empirically validated theoretical model is an important contribution to the scientific understanding of the mechanisms behind initiating, performing and temporarily abandoning creative activity.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Greek epigraphic culture and statuary habit.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Evolutionary approach to human body morphology, behaviour and preferences. Studies on physiological aspects of human biological condition/quality in the context of sexual selection i.e. potential signals of physical traits perceived as attractive.
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Piotr Sorokowski specialises in cultural evolution and the methodology of science. He has published over 100 research articles related to evolutionary, cultural, biological and social psychology, human ethology, anthropology and human-computer interactions. He is one of a few psychologists to conduct periodic studies of traditional cultures in Africa
(2008, 2014, 2015, 2017), the Amazon (2012), West Papua (2009, 2016, 2019), and the Pacific Region (2013, 2018). His field studies in nonindustrial societies (Hadza and Datoga of Tanzania, Tsimane’ of Bolivia, Yali of Papua) focused on the relationships between the cultural and individual predictors of various psychological mechanisms.

The results of his research have shed
new light on the interplay between evolution and culture on social and reproductive success (including publication in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Science of the Total Environment, Evolution and Human Behavior). Together with Agnieszka Sorokowska, he is a co-founder and leader of the Cross-Cultural Research group — one of the largest cross-cultural research groups in the world (www.martakowal.com/new; collaborators from 70 countries).
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Multidisciplinary research program of Agnieszka Sorokowska and her team relates mostly to sensory perception, cross-cultural and cognitive psychology, although many of her studies also combine other disciplines, like anthropology or neuroscience. She conducted studies in West Papua, Bolivian Amazon Pacific Islands. Together with Piotr Sorokowski, she is a leader of the Cross-Cultural Research Group that comprises over 100 scientists from all over the world and regularly publishes the outcomes of their studies in top scientific journals. One of her greatest scientific achievements was a recently completed recent research series on sensory compensation and blindness.

She designed and conducted several studies exploring olfactory sensitivity of the blind people as compared to the sighted individuals, and comparing these two groups in the context of processing of non–visual information potentially important for social functioning. The research enabled collecting important data that can be used in broad analyses of the importance and usage of functioning modalities following visual loss. The results can support the understanding of sensory compensation mechanisms and can help determine which cognitive mechanisms enhance the sensory processing in functioning modalities. In her current research, conducted within two grants funded by Polish National Science Centre, Agnieszka Sorokowska focuses on sensory components of food neophobia in children and on developmental changes in
psychological traits during transition to parenthood.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Geomorphic evolution of sandstone tablelands.
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In her research, she focuses on the determinants of creative development and achievements. She is an author of many articles and chapters dedicated to creativity and co-editor of The Palgrave Handbook of Social Creativity Research.

Izabela Lebuda has a significant research funding record, including many successfully finished projects with tracks of publications. Recently she received the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship from the European Commission in Program Horizon 2020. The project will examine creative metacognition accuracy and regulation facets from a behavioral and neuroscientific perspective. Using advanced techniques to study creative metacognition could shed new light on the chosen problem and address the extension of research topics in creative neuroscience.
Izabela Lebuda is a part of many international networks devoted to creativity research: Creative Life Research Center at the University of Northern Iowa, the USA, and Webster Center for Creativity & Innovation at Webster University Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, she closely collaborates with the Creative Cognition Lab at Graz University (Austria) and the Quality of Life Research Centre at Claremont Graduate University (USA).
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In her work, dr Anna Oleszkiewicz aims to understand the human olfactory function in health and disease. Several scientific studies have confirmed the great importance of the human sense of smell, phylogenetically the oldest sense, for ordinary human physical, mental and social functioning. The basic premise for this relationship is neuroanatomy. Olfactory signals are transformed from chemical to electrical stimuli at the level of the nasal epithelium and then travel via the olfactory bulb to the piriform cortex, the amygdala (responsible for emotional processes in humans) and the hippocampus (memory).

The psychological effects of olfactory loss are very severe – people with olfactory deficits are more likely to suffer from depression, and complain of the reduced quality of life and interpersonal relationships. The loss of smell is also an early sign of neurodegenerative diseases such as: Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
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The Willy Brandt Centre for German and European Studies (CSNE) is an interdepartmental and interdisciplinary institution of the University of Wrocław. It was founded in 2002 as a joint project between the University of Wrocław and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The most important goal of CSNE is to initiate, organise and popularise research on German and European issues as well as on Polish-German relations. The CSNE is part of a global network of 20 research institutes supported by the DAAD.

CSNE’s activity is based on three pillars that intertwine and complement one another. These are research, teaching and public outreach. Research is focused on five thematic areas: the visions of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries; nationalism, religions and European integration; culture, literature and memory in Polish-German relations; German history and Polish-German controversies; and Poland and Germany in a united Europe.
 
As a university institution, it offers its expertise to Polish and German politicians and social activists and advises various domestic and foreign non-governmental organisations. Since its inception, CSNE has received financial and organisational support from various institutions, including the Foundation for Polish-German Cooperation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, the Volkswagen Foundation, the Robert Bosch Foundation and the German National Foundation.
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In the eastern part of the Sahara, in Sudan, the research team of professor Mirosław Masojć from the Institute of Archaeology discovered numerous stone tools made and used by Homo erectus. They may even be over 700 thousand years old. Such ancient evidence of the human presence in the region had not yet been discovered.

In the opencast mines of Africa today, people are searching for gold. Exposing successive layers, the miners came across massive stones with a transverse “sharpened” edge. These are typical prehistoric monuments known from the present-day areas of Ethiopia and Kenya. The site of the discovery is likely to have been a place where these tools were made hundreds of thousands of years ago. Masojć and co-workers found both finished “products” as well as splinters created during their making. These are traces of the presence of an African species of Homo erectus– the ancestor of modern humans (Homo
sapiens), who appeared in Africa about 1.8 million years ago.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Nineteenth and twentieth century Spanish philosophy and its interactions with German philosophy, which has its source in the transcendentalism and criticism of Immanuel Kant.
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Dr Marta Kondracka-Szala works with researchers and teachers from the United States. The research has two stages. The first consists of focus group interviews with teachers of children aged 4-6 from Poland and the USA. The second phase involves the research with those children themselves. During the study, she uses a participative and mosaic approach, which is rare in research with children in Poland. During the experiment, Polish and American teachers first talked about how they use popular music in their work with children and identified the pop songs they use in their work with children. Polish teachers mentioned the following songs: The Beatles – “Twist & Shout”, Vangelis – “West across the Ocean Sea”, Alvaro Soler – “La Cintura”, Queen’s songs or the melody from the film The Pink Panther. On the other hand, the American teachers mainly chose: The Beatles – “Yellow Submarine”, Dolly
Parton – “9 to 5”, USA for Africa – “We are the World”.



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The use of ICT devices in the education of children and persons with disabilities and special educational needs is dealt with by dr hab. Piotr Plichta from the Department of Education of People with Disabilities at the Institute of Pedagogy.

“New media in education and rehabilitation offer a great opportunity for children but also older people with disabilities. When used by sensitive practitioners, they can respond to special educational needs, such as intellectual disabilities. On the one hand, it is a chance to eliminate inequalities and limit digital exclusion. On the other hand, new technologies also bring challenges and risky situations that need to be recognised and effectively counteracted”, explains Plichta.

Piotr Plichta is currently involved in several scientific national and international projects. He focuses on how to prevent digital exclusion through digital tools, not only in times of crisis. He is the co-author of the first free handbook in Poland published by EduAkcja just after the pandemic outbreak in April 2020: “Education in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. With a distance about what we are doing now as teachers (edited by J. Pyżalski)”. The publication has been downloaded over 100,000 times. Piotr Plichta is a member of a team looking at the learning and psychological needs of students (25,000 from 8 countries) in the pandemic, which is part of a larger international initiative
coordinated by the researchers at the University of Vienna.
His research interests also include other social contexts of using new technologies (cyberbullying, online image, problematic use of the Internet) as well as stress and burnout in helping professions. In addition, he cooperates with various educational institutions, e.g. The School with Class Foundation, the Center for Citizenship Education, and is a member of COST international scientific networks.
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Throughout her career, professor Brytek-Matera has been involved with research around eating disorders, maladaptive eating behaviour and weight-related behaviour. She is recognized internationally for her work in the area of eating disorders and orthorexia nervosa. She has made pioneer contributions to orthorexia nervosa in Poland and advanced level of currently conducted research into this pathological eating behaviour in the world.

She is committed to research that results in a better understanding of maladaptive eating behaviour. Her current research focuses on the impact of negative affect on eating behaviour in laboratory and ecological settings, as well as on characteristics of dietary patterns and health-related behaviours in the field of orthorexia nervosa.


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Małecki and his team of scholars representing fields as different as social psychology (Piotr Sorokowski, Anna Oleszkiewicz), biological anthropology (Bogusław Pawłowski), and literary history (Marcin Cieński), conducted a series of over a dozen studies involving a few thousand participants and a number of literary texts representing
various genres and national literatures. Their results were published in internationally recognized journals. They also contributed to the emergence of a new field called empirical ecocriticism, dedicated to the empirical study of environmental narratives.

Together with some of these 
scholars, most importantly Matthew Schneider-Mayerson (Yale-NUS) and Alexa Weik von Mossner (University of Klagenfurt), Małecki edited a special issue of a leading environmental humanities journal ISLE on empirical ecocriticism (Spring 2020) and is currently working on research projects concerning the impact of narratives on attitudes toward extinction and climate change. Another extension of his work on animal narratives is his current
project, with Piotr Sorokowski, that concerns the evolutionary factors behind narrative impact and the human propensity for narrative in general.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Palaeolithic and Mesolithic archaeology, symbolic culture of forager societies.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Material culture studies.
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WORKING WITH BIG DATA - FROM ALGORITHMS AND LOGIC TO DATA SCIENCE AND AI

This Priority Research Area covers fundamental research concerning handling large data. The word “fundamental” has to be understood broadly: the distance
between basic research and applications is shorter in Computer Science than in any other discipline — even Google’s empire started with a purely theoretical algorithmic discovery.

For the last twenty years, the University 
of Wrocław has gained wide international recognition in algorithmics and logical foundations of computer science. However, if it wishes to keep up with changes in the field, it must (while not losing what it has already achieved) extend competence over the most novel branches, data science and artificial intelligence.
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The Data Science Team at the Institute of Mathematics, led by professor Małgorzata Bogdan, works on developing novel statistical methods for the analysis of high dimensional data. They focus mainly on different techniques for the dimensionality reduction of supervised and unsupervised learning. The scientists have developed several techniques that allow identifying important patterns in high dimensional data while controlling the number of false discoveries, i.e., random patterns that arise due to the high dimensionality of the data. They analyse new methods using mathematical theory, computer simulations and real-life examples.

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Although the faculty was established in 1996, it can be traced back as far as to the very beginning of the university in 1702. Today, it is an interdisciplinary unit with over 120 academics, affiliated with two institutes.

The research done at the Institute of Computer Science spans from classical fields such as algorithms, logic, or database theory, to cutting-edge challenges of artificial intelligence and big data.

The study of algorithms and data structures helps to design efficient solutions to complex computational problems. Some of the current approaches include distributed, online, approximation, and randomized algorithms,
which contribute to solving practical problems in networking (e.g., server problems/wireless networks), resource allocation, or scheduling. An important
class of problems are those arising in big data processing, such as streaming or sketching, that involve massively distributed algorithms.

Logic in computer science focuses on problems related to the design and analysis of formal inference systems, such as their expressibility or decidability. Closely related to it is the field of semantics and formal methods developed to design and study software systems. This research is driven by applications in the design and reasoning about programming languages, and in formal verification of safety-critical software and hardware.
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Dariusz Biernacki is a computer scientist whose research centres on the theory and implementation of programming languages. His research projects revolve around the applications of mathematical logic to the formal semantics of modern higher-order programming languages, with the practical goals of advancing the field of program analysis, transformation and verification, and thus of enhancing the construction of safe and robust software. Dariusz Biernacki is a co-author of several research articles presented at the most prestigious international conferences, including the annual Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, and has published in international journals devoted to programming language theory.


He is also a co-founder of one of the most active research teams within the area of programming languages in Poland, with an established and continuously
growing international position. In addition, he maintains an active international collaboration with research institutions in Europe and primarily with
the French Inria.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Algorithm design, big data processing.
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Econophysics is the hybrid field that can be roughly defined as quantitative approaches using ideas, models, conceptual and computational methods of statistical physics and complex systems science applied to economic phenomena.

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The origin of modern econophysics dates to 1991 when Rosario N. Mantegna published a pioneering paper titled Levy walks and enhanced diffusion in Milan Stock-Exchange by discovering the breaking of the central limit theorem on the stock market. Mantegna’s discovery has opened the eyes of the physics community to non-Gaussian processes on financial markets, in particular, concerning the multiscale and scale-free properties of complex systems such as financial markets. More precisely, we know now that the central limit theorem is present on the financial market away from a crash while the theorem is not applicable to the time series containing the crash. Instead, in the latter case, a scale invariance or data collapse is observed because the Gaussian statistics were replaced by the scale-free distribution, i.e. the power law.

Apparently, the beginning of modern econophysics is directly connected with the physical analysis of financial markets focused on the non-Brownian or non-Wiener random walks. Currently, almost all major physical journals already accept econophysical works. It was during this period that an avalanche of econophysical publications set off.


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We all live in a three-dimensional space. This means that three coordinates are enough to specify any point in our surroundings. Similarly, a sheet of paper is two-dimensional. Indeed, two coordinates suffice to specify any point on it. One may ask if there is any need for a concept of a dimension larger than three. Since the work of Albert Einstein, it has been known that for objects in the universe that are either very fast (close to the speed of light) or
very massive (of the masses of stars or larger), the appropriate dimension is four. Time becomes an extra coordinate adding to the three spatial coordinates. Well, then, are dimensions larger than four of any use in science? The answer is yes – high dimensional objects frequently appear in computer science, statistics and mathematics. 

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Krzystof Graczyk develops deep learning tools to study the fundamental properties of fluid dynamics in porous media. The project is done in collaboration with dr Matyka (IFT, UWr). The main idea is to obtain the system that will predict the fundamental macroscopic quantities, such as permeability and tortuosity, based on the analysis of the configuration of the obstacles in the medium. The first results have already been published in Scientific Reports and were presented during the InterPore 2021 conference.
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The Institute of Information and Library Science is a modern institution that specialises in research on scientific information. Our interests and research tradition are connected with a unique documentation and information specialisation launched in the mid-1970s. It included work on the project of a macrosystem of information, research on books and scientific information in the then socialist countries. During that time, we cooperated with the Department of Library and Information Science of Charles University in Prague, the Department of Book Studies and Information Science of Comenius University in Bratislava as well as with the best Polish universities such as the Jagiellonian and Warsaw Universities.

Our research initially focusing on scientific 
studies took on a new meaning when the methods of collecting, processing
and compiling data became commonplace in the digital age. Thus, we are interested in (among other things) the following topics: problems of collecting, processing and analysing data in order to read the description of the changes taking place, making scientific data available and presenting them, the issue of the digitalisation of archival data and unique resources of scientific literature,
the attempts to determine and process large data sets, the problem of the visualisation and presentation of scientific data and the volumetrics of collected data.
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The Computational Intelligence Research Group, under the leadership of Piotr Wnuk-Lipiński, works on solving problems using a data-driven approach. The team’s scientists specialize in three areas:

1. modeling complex systems, especially related to high frequency multidimensional time series, using Evolutionary Algorithms and data mining techniques,
2. language and speech processing using modern deep learning techniques,
3. artificial Intelligence for Games.

Their research on complex systems includes: mining frequent patterns in sequential or temporal data (such as ultra-high frequency time series), learning hidden states models for temporal data, enhancing multidimensional
time series prediction by Evolutionary Algorithms, and solving high dimensional optimization problems by using Evolutionary Algorithms, especially Estimation of Distribution Algorithms, with dimensionality reduction improvements.

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The latest result of the work of professor Tomasz Kalisz and his team is the creation of a professional teaching “tool” in the form of the Virtual Crime Room. The Virtual Crime Room is part of a comprehensive project to develop
virtual reality (VR) technology in education. The Virtual Crime Room offers the latest professional technological and methodological solutions that can be applied to the educational process. Its central element is an event simulator, recreating different variants of murders, suicides and accidents with different traces. In the simulated reality, the participants have to determine
and correctly secure traces inside and outside the building (in three weather variants).

At present, there is work on extending the module with the

possibility of using odour generators. The developed solutions aim to equip students/trainees in this system with the manual skills to perform complex visual inspection procedures (i.e. static and dynamic phases, marking traces, taking photographs, identifying and securing traces). At the same time, four individuals can participate in this, which is a number corresponding to the number of the team members securing the crime scene.
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There are new challenges in the analysis of spectra. Due to their number reaching millions, analysing them manually and drawing conclusions based on them are more and more demanding. With new observatories equipped with spectrographs and numerous scientific projects, this trend will continue and the efficient handling of spectral data will become even more important.


A group of scientists from the Institute of Astronomy of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy are working to address these problems, using machine learning techniques, deep learning in particular. This relatively new field has emerged due to a similar flood of data in the field of image and natural language processing and the development of highly parallel graphical processing units (GPUs) may now prove to be the key to new results in the field of stellar spectroscopy.
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Good examples of the application of digital technology in the humanities are the three projects led by professor Adam Pawłowski and his team from the Faculty of Letters of the University of Wrocław. There were used Deep Learning techniques, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data. In their first project, “Methods and tools of corpus linguistics in the study of bibliographies of Polish publications from 1997-2017”, the researchers created a corpus of publication titles. Then, they carried out its multifaceted informatological and stylostatistical analysis. The data for the study were generated from the bibliographic resources of the National Library, which records all publishing production within Poland. The analysis of the bibliography included a comprehensive stylistic analysis of titles, automatic identification of the author’s gender, analysis of the spatial distribution of place names (places of publication, geographical names in titles) and automatic classification of genres based solely on titles. This research employed, among other things, the methods of micro-text taxonomy. Most of the NLP (Natural Language Processing) tools used in the project are based on a deep learning technique widely used in various artificial intelligence algorithms. One of the parts of the project was an automatic classification of publications on the basis of titles (recognition of disciplines, genres, subgenres) and the automatic detection of the gender of the author based on titles only. The results of the analysis were further verified with the actual situation.
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HEALTH - FROM GENE ANALYSIS TO DRUG DESIGN

This priority research area is focused on advanced biomedical technologies and advanced research at the molecular level. The aim of research in this field is to gain knowledge of basic mechanisms responsible for the processes leading to the disturbance of human health, to indicate molecular targets and subsequently utilise this
knowledge to design novel diagnostic and therapeutic
methods. Research conducted in the field of molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular microbiology, biomedical engineering should result in the characterisation of the molecular bases of human diseases, particularly rare genetic diseases, systemic diseases, cancer, infectious and immune diseases. In the future, these data may be used to design novel therapeutic strategies used in the treatment of cancer, rare genetic diseases, diabetes, infectious and immune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases. Research conducted in the aforementioned fields will focus on designing novel drugs and their carriers as well as on discovering drug activity mechanisms, allowing for the efficient assessment and improvement of human health.
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The prospective areas of the activity of the faculty include research and teaching. Producing work of the highest quality highest quality is the goal of both the authorities and the entire community of the faculty. All the aforementioned currents correspond in their level to world trends so that researchers, doctoral students and students may be considered equal members of the universal scientific and university community. The concern for the internationalisation of research and education is accompanied by a closer relationship with Wrocław, the region, and the country, for which the faculty is an open and inspiring centre of scientific and intellectual life. This aspect of our activity is part of the programme to build an enlightened, civic state and a knowledge-based society.
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The scientists conduct research in the field of human biology, biogeochemistry, environmental biology, conservation biology, ecology, genetics, immunology, microbiology, parasitology, developmental biology, botany, mycology, zoology, paleozoology and neurobiology and physiology.

The faculty is characterised particularly by renowned and age-diversified academic staff, a wide range of scientific disciplines enabling interdisciplinary research, high quality of research and education, unique units belonging
to the faculty (Natural History Museum, Museum of Man, Botanical Garden, Ecological Station in Karpacz, Ornithological Station in Ruda Milicka), good relations with external stakeholders as well as a broad educational offer.

The employees conduct interdisciplinary teaching in fields of study such as biology, human biology, genetics and experimental biology, microbiology and management of the natural environment.
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The research at the Department of Molecular Physiology and Neurobiology is focused on the molecular mechanisms by which enzymes of basic energy metabolism affect brain plasticity and cancer cell biology. Some enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis not only catalyse enzymatic reactions but also regulate in a non-metabolic through manner interactions with other cellular components and a variety of essential biological phenomena such as cell proliferation, migration, and response to stress stimuli and formation of synaptic connections.

The scientists from the Department have discovered the mechanism through which the disruption of the non-metabolic role of ALDOA glycolytic enzyme leads to the death of cancer cells. The same effect may be achieved by stimulating the non-enzymatic function of FBP2 gluconeogenic enzyme. The researchers have also demonstrated that a proper mode of FBP2 interaction with its binding partners is a prerequisite for synaptic plasticity. In both cases – cancer cells and neurons – the proper mode of FBP2 interaction with binding partners (also with ALDOA) depends on its quaternary structure, which is regulated by metabolic signals produced by adjacent, non-cancerous and non-neuronal cells.

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His research group aims to answer how metalloproteins obtain their metal ions under cellular conditions and how these ions regulate their function.

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Artur Krężel specialises in inorganic biochemistry, chemical biology and analytical biochemistry. During his postdoctoral training at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, he worked with professor Wolfgang Maret on the mechanisms of cellular zinc homeostasis, which led to the discovery of the properties of metallothioneins that buffer zinc ions, which are key to understanding the role of these regulatory proteins. At the same time, he was a scientific consultant for NeuroBioTex Incorporation, where he co-developed miniaturised equipment to measure free zinc concentrations in the brain and biological fluids.


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This method is now considered the future of anti-cancer therapies and the ADC market is one of the most rapidly growing branches of this type of treatment.

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What is the cause of rapid multiplication of cancer cells? What role do specific proteins play in this process? How can you increase the effectiveness of targeted anti-cancer therapies? The biotechnologists from the Department of Protein Engineering at the University of Wrocław are looking for the answers.

The results of their research may revolutionise the knowledge of the
causes of the rapid multiplication of cancer cells and, consequently, will make it possible to create more effective anti-cancer therapies. The biotechnologists are searching for new partner proteins that can regulate the FGF/FGFR system. Using high-throughput techniques, they have identified a number of such proteins and, at the same time, discovered a mechanism, completely unknown before, that impacts the transmission of signals by FGFR and their transport into cells.
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The most notable research projects resulting from the funding include:

1. the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of different antibacterials (including biocides, nanomaterials) and serum against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria;
2. the biodiversity of bacterial microbiota (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria) isolated from different sources;
3. the analysis of the mode of action of antibacterials (including nanomaterials like silver nanoformulations, graphene and biocides);
4. the analysis of the mechanism of resistance to antibacterials (including nanomaterials like silver nanoformulations);
5. the determination of the influence of various biological and chemical factors on a simple model organism (Galleria mellonella);
6. the study of the participation of bacterial surface structures in response to environmental factors;
7. the analysis of proteome and genome of selected microorganisms;
8. the analysis of the microbiological purity of products (fluids, cosmetics and others).

When conducting their analysis, the researchers use elaborate methods, such as experimental and computational prediction, phenotypic, molecular, genetic, proteomic and immunoenzymatic techniques. The results of the above-mentioned projects are numerous scientific publications and scientific cooperation, both with international and other Polish research centres. In the team of the Department of Microbiology also work dr Bartłomiej Dudek, dr Bożena Futoma-Kołoch, dr Katarzyna Guz-Regner, dr Anna Kędziora, dr Kamila Korzekwa, dr Aleksandra Pawlak and PhD students.

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The struggle with cancer is one of the most important challenges to be faced by contemporary medicine and, more generally, by health care policy in Poland and in the world.

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The problem of cancer treatment has been tackled for several years by the employees of the Faculty of Biotechnology of the University of Wrocław. Skin melanoma represents only 4% of skin cancers but it is considered to be one of the most life-threatening. Its research is carried out by the team led by professor Dorota Nowak. Social campaigns promoting knowledge of melanoma and the need to control pigmented lesions using the ABCDE algorithm have significantly reduced the number of patients coming to the doctor with advanced stages of cancer.

The low survival rate among patients is due to the high variability, diversity
and extraordinary invasiveness of this cancer. This last factor was the focus
of professor Dorota Nowak’s team, who has been working on melanoma
since 2015, having received more than PLN 600,000 as part of an OPUS
grant from the National Science Centre. The researchers focused on two receptors: EGFR, the epidermal growth factor receptor, and c-Met, the
hepatocyte growth factor receptor, under whose influence invadopodia are formed. Literature data suggest that their elevated levels are often observed in melanoma.
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At the University of Wrocław, laboratory experiments on pain were first carried out and the mechanisms of pain generation were studied before proceeding to the clinical testing phase.

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One of the better-known coping mechanisms is to divert attention away from pain, which is exactly the aspect the researchers focused on. Children who had to undergo a brief but unpleasant injection with a needle were offered to play a game set in virtual reality. Others were allowed to watch a video similar to the game. Both groups reported significant reductions in stress and pain, with those playing the game seeing a reduction in pain of up to around 60 per cent and stress of over 70 per cent.

Children of all ages can use the game. It involves remembering a few briefly
flashing items and then finding them among other moving objects. The game consists of several scenes. Each scene has a different background and number of flying objects to sustain the child’s interest in each level and increase the chance of distraction from pain.
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Dr Barbara Maciejewska is a specialist in molecular biology and microbiology. She is working on recombinant phage enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall envelopes (lysins and capsule depolymerases). Using synthetic
biology methods and genetic engineering, she is discovering novel proteins with antibacterial potential.

Dr Tomasz Olszak is a specialist in microbiology and the biology of bacteriophages. His research interests are focused on the phage resistance emergence in the model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This issue covers both the assessment of genetic and phenotypic variations, including the effect of phage resistance on pathogen virulence. His studies shed new light on the mechanisms involved in the co-evolution of bacteria and phages, while also revealing how these processes are impacting the effectiveness of phage treatment - an appealing tool in clinics and veterinary areas.
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The Faculty of Biotechnology is the dynamically developing, youngest faculty (established in 2006) at the University of Wrocław. Within 15 research groups – 12 departments and 2 laboratories, 78 researchers conduct research in the field of medical and industrial biotechnology, cell biology, biomedicine, biochemistry, bioinformatics, microbiology and immunology, currently carrying out nearly 70 research projects (financed from NCNN, NCBiR, FNP and EU funds). In successive evaluations, continuously since 2013, we have obtained the prestigious scientific category A+. In 2014-2018 we were the leader of the consortium “Wrocław Biotechnology Centre”, which received the status of KNOW (National Scientific Leading Centre).

Within the Faculty of Biotechnology, there is the Editorial Board of the international scientific journal Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters (CMBL), which has the highest Impact Factor among all scientific journals published in Poland. In the ranking of the educational portal “Perspektywy” in 2021, the faculty was ranked third among biotechnology faculties in Poland, just behind Warsaw University and Jagiellonian University.
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The Faculty of Biotechnology is the smallest faculty at the university. However, it is the most successful unit at the University of Wroclaw in terms of receiving research grants. The faculty employees conduct basic and applied research, also in cooperation with industrial partners, in the field of biotechnology, biochemistry,
bioinformatics, microbiology, immunology, virology, cell biology and plant physiology. A lot of effort is put into medicine-related research. To name a few, the faculty’s scientists study fibroblast growth factors and their receptors to establish new anti-cancer therapies, develop innovative drug carriers, study gum diseases and rare genetic disorders e.g. muscular dystrophies.
Some of our researchers search for new antibiotics and new antibiotic targets.

Among the applied research projects are those aiming at 
improving crop plants, e.g. flax and potatoes leading to the development of novel biocomposites and materials for dressings effective in treating slow healing wounds. They are also interested in biofuels, biosurfactants and food oriented biorefineries as well as in cellular organelles, e.g. plastids and mitochondria, particularly their evolution. Within the basic research areas, the researchers investigate protein structure and function, chromosome organisation and regulation of gene expression and other key cellular processes like glycosylation or photosynthesis.


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RESEARCH AREA:
Influence of obesity on the development of colon cancer.
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MULTICULTURALISM - COOPERATION AND ITS STRUCTURES

Among the main challenges we face today is overcoming
barriers that separate representatives of different
cultures existing within one political community or within
a given structure of interests (economic, political, etc.).
However, already in antiquity, there were attempts to find
ways of cooperation between members of different cultures.

One aim of the interdisciplinary research on multicultural
societies conducted at the University of Wrocław
is to increase our knowledge of such attempts by studying
their examples from different historical periods and
regions. Another aim of this research is to present both
the circumstances of cultural conflicts and ways of solving
them by analysing the conditions of permanence and
change in intercultural relations. In undertaking their
studies, researchers react to tensions and the needs of
the social environment they belong to, seeing the tightening interactions between societies formed in different cultures as a cognitive challenge. They also focus on the systemic processes that are currently taking place in Europe and which are shaping its future. While each of the
historians, art historians, philologists, sociologists, political systems scholars and lawyers who belong to the Priority Research Area works within the boundaries of his or her respective field, they all take the achievements of other fields into consideration.
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Winner of the Nobel Prize at the University of Wrocław. Olga Tokarczuk Ex-Centre. The Centre for Academic Research.

On 2 July 2021, an agreement was signed between the University of Wrocław and Olga Tokarczuk Foundation, under which the Centre for Academic Research was established at the Faculty of Letters. Olga Tokarczuk Ex-Centre is a new research centre that will organise seminars, conferences and publishing activities. During the press briefing, Olga Tokarczuk stated: “My task is to look for non-obvious points of view, to stick my head out of the familiar horizon. I hope that the Ex-Centre at the University of Wrocław will allow us to stick our heads out of the sphere of fixed views and will be ex-centric in its nature and it will address topics we haven’t dreamt of so far”.

Cooperation between the Foundation and the University may be crucial for Polish humanities. Olga Tokarczuk Ex-Centre will bring together students and lecturers - not only those who wish to conduct research into gender equality, animal rights and the socio-cultural causality of literature but also those who wish to focus on as of yet undiscovered, ex-centric fields; fields that require a non-conventional perspective.

Olga Tokarczuk Ex-Centre. The Centre for Academic Research pursues its goals through, among other things, individual tutoring by the Nobel Prize winner herself, conferences, research programmes, seminars, publishing
and critical translation projects as well as series of masterclasses given by guests and residents of the Foundation.
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The Faculty of Letters is the largest and most diverse faculty of the University of Wrocław. It employs almost half a thousand scholars specialising in various disciplines of the humanities (linguistics and literary studies) and social sciences (social communication and media studies) and working in twenty different languages of their specialisation (from English and Spanish to Yiddish and Sanskrit).

Among the most active units of the faculty are The Cognitive Research Center for Language and Communication, The Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies of Relations between Oral and Written Tradition, The Research Center for Postcolonial and Posttotalitarian Studies and The Centre for Research on Children’s and Young Adult Literature, whose scholars in recent years alone have published many books in prestigious foreign publishing houses (e.g. Justyna Deszcz-Tryhubczak, Irena Barbara Kalla (eds.), Rulers of Literary Playgrounds: Politics of Intergenerational Play in Children’s Literature, Routledge, New York, 2021) and prestigious academic journals (special issue of History of Education and Children’s Literature, volume 15, number 2, 2020). Within the faculty, it has also been active for a short time Olga Tokarczuk Ex-Centre. The Centre for Academic Research, whose main objective will be supporting research on topics present in the works of our Nobel Prize Winner
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Historical Atlas of Hasidism, published in cooperation between a historian (Marcin Wodziński) and a cartographer (Waldemar Spallek), is a perfect example of how modern digital technologies can be applied to research in the field of humanities. Published in 2018 by Princeton University Press, it won several awards, including the National Jewish Book Award and the Judaica Reference Award; the Financial Times put the atlas on its list of the 14 most important books of 2018.


The work is the first spatial analysis of Hasidism and, in fact, the very first cartographic representation of any mystical religious movement. It discusses the rise and expansion of Hasidism, its institutional forms, twentieth-century emigration to the New World, the crisis of two world wars and the Holocaust and, finally, the revival of Hasidism after 1945. The 74 large-format, full-colour maps and accompanying text, 99 illustrations, charts and tables present the spatial, physical and visual dimensions of the mystical Hasidic movement in a visually appealing, easy-to-understand format. The atlas demonstrates how geography informed the social organisation of Hasidism as well as its culture, spirituality and types of religious leadership. It is innovative in moving the focus of analysis from the leaders to the thousands of rank-and-file followers and investigating Hasidism in its historical entity from its emergence in the eighteenth century until today. It also applies an extensive and diversified source basis and the contemporary GIS tools (Geographic Information System) to arrive at a fully comprehensive picture of Hasidism. The atlas is a visually compelling and intellectually fascinating read. As one of the reviewers noted, the atlas “demonstrates that a photo is worth a thousand words and a map millions”.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Linguistics, theoretical and descriptive translation studies, cognitive translation studies; defnition and classifcation of translation based on the theoretical and practical approach; the concept of translation and typology of translations elaborated by translation studies scholars and agents of translational labour market; defnition and typology of translation services; specialised translation; professionalisation in didactics of translation; sociology of work applied to translation-related jobs; methodology of empirical research in translation studies; translation competence and its acquisition.
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Krzysztof Nawotka is ancient historian whose research concentrates on four areas: the history and government of Miletus, the great Greek city on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, the history and legend of Alexander
the Great, the application of quantitative methods to epigraphic studies and the history of Greek cities on the western coast of the Black Sea. Unlike the works of many of his predecessors, the research of Krzysztof Nawotka
focuses on the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and not on the archaic age when Miletus was the main centre of Greek colonisation and the birthplace of world science (Ionian philosophy of nature).

The aim of the study of the history of Miletus in the Hellenistic and Roman periods is to trace the political and social transformations of the Greek city in confrontation with the great territorial powers – the Hellenistic monarchies, the republic and the Roman Empire. These studies show, among other things, that the period of the greatest spread and vitality of Greek democracy was the Hellenistic rather than, as many believe, the Classical age. Furthermore, they seek to link the process of degeneration and decline of democracy to the influence of Rome, which – in various ways – supported the rule of a wealthy oligarchy in Greek cities.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Economic policies of the European Union, including their systemic and constitutional aspects.
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Professor Mirosław Kocur develops a historical approach to performance studies, researching the origins of theatre and ritual arts. In his comprehensive research, he connects theatre studies with archaeology, neuroscience and performance studies. He surveys the performative agency of artistic and ritual behaviours. He also researches the social efficacy of rituals and cultural performances worldwide (Bali, Tanzania, Tibet, Madagascar, USA, in plans Amazonia, Vanuatu). Furthermore, he applies ground-breaking methodologies – Performance-as-Research and Practice-as-Research – to advance a new understanding of “practice” and explore the scientific dimension of artistic events.

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Wrocław is one of the oldest and best faculties of this kind in Poland. Its history and tradition draw on the achievements of the universities of Jan Kazimierz in Lviv and Stefan Batory in Vilnius. The excellent teaching conditions and opportunities have resulted in the faculty remaining at the top of national rankings for years. The faculty’s prestigious, highest Category A+ confirms the high level of its scientific and research activity, which has been maintained for years.

The faculty is a leader in Poland, among other faculties, in terms of the number of scientific articles published annually in journals from the JCR Journal Citation Reports list, the so-called Philadelphia list. In addition, publications by faculty members are essential in terms of the internationalisation of research results. More than a dozen scientific journals are published here. All are available online free of charge. Extensive national and international cooperation is evidenced by the fact that the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics has signed over 100 agreements with other law faculties in Poland and abroad.

In addition 
to long-standing agreements with foreign universities, including Cambridge, Groningen, Bari, Sofia, Moscow, Lviv, Buenos Aires, Chicago, St. Petersburg, Prague, Grodno and Cologne, the faculty has signed nearly 100 agreements with law faculties at partner universities.
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Several thousand students study here and every year many high school graduates from Poland, Europe and all over the world declare their desire to study here. Consequently, the didactic offer is dynamically adapted to the requirements of the labour market and new, attractive and unique specialisations are launched.

The high level of the faculty is also confirmed by the podium places occupied for 10 years in prestigious rankings of law faculties in Poland, organised by renowned newspapers and magazines. The scientific potential, staff and quality of education are particularly appreciated. Moreover, the University Legal Clinic at the University of Wrocław carries out essential activities, e.g. the students of the Clinic under the supervision of the academic staff provide professional legal advice to those interested.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Comparative criminal procedure, US criminal procedure, protection of individual’s rights in criminal process in particular regarding privacy protection, as well as the organization of prosecution service and role of the prosecutor in criminal proceedings.
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Adam J. Chmielewski is a social activist, translator, literary critic and political columnist. He has published over a dozen philosophical and literary translations, including works by Karl Popper, Bertrand Russell, Alasdair MacIntyre, Richard Shusterman, Slavoj Žižek, D.H. Lawrence and Pearl S. Buck. Since 2005, he has been the editor-in-chief of the quarterly Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia. He is the author of the successful candidacy of Wrocław for the title of the European Capital of Culture. He is the author of the following blogs: Interventions: Philosophical and Political; Contra-Dictions; and Meetings Downtown.
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It is hard to imagine an Internet user who in the 21st century will be satisfied with a digital copy of scientific publications, cultural heritage objects and source materials (manuscripts,
archives, museum collections, library resources) in the form of an image. Readers today expect much more – they want not only to read a digital version of a publication in a graphic form but also to search a document (by phrase or expression) with just one word. However, before addressing readers’ expectations, we first want to take care of the scientists, the authors of scientific publications. After all, it is from them that the whole creative process begins. 

First of all, we want the researchers from the University of Wrocław to be able to convert the digital image of a scientific publication (a scan) into a digital text and then to publish
it, thereby increasing its visibility on the Internet and, consequently, its citation rate.

This is why the University of Wrocław is working on the Virtual Transcription Laboratory  integrated with the Aggregator of Academic Works (ADN) and the Repository of the University of Wrocław. These three interconnected digital services will create a Virtual Researcher’s Workroom. Researchers will be able to prepare digital publications for online presentation and teach using source materials such as archives, manuscripts, old prints, etc., as well as publish their work and make it available to readers in Poland and abroad.
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RESEARCH AREA:
Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of natural resources in development, resource curse hypothesis, development aid, development economics, global public goods and international organisations, Sino-African relations, wealth inequalities in developing countries.
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At the Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics of the University of Wrocław, the so-called Virtual Crime Room was opened in 2018. It is part of a comprehensive project to develop Virtual Reality Technology (VR) in education. The work on the project is carried out by the Centre for Virtual Reality Technology. Currently, the Centre is implementing the project within the operational programme “Integrated Development Programme of the University of Wrocław II for the years 2019-2023” (total project value – PLN 7,675,267.60).

The Virtual Crime Room offers technological and methodical solutions that can be implemented
in the educational process. Its central element is a simulator of events, recreating different variants of murders, suicides and accidents with diversified traces.

In the simulated reality, the students have to determine and correctly secure traces inside and outside the object (in three weather variants). Currently, work is underway to expand the module to include the possibility of using odour generators. The solutions aim to equip students/trainees in this system with manual skills to conduct complex visual inspection procedures (i.e. static and dynamic phases, marking traces, taking
photographs, identifying and securing traces) with the simultaneous participation of four persons (i.e. in the number corresponding to the team securing the scene of the incident).
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Przemysław Wiszewski’s research interests focus on the identity of heterogeneous social groups and forms of communication among members of these groups. In his research, he puts particular emphasis on values as factors that define and bind groups and information circulation that enables making and growing of social groups. For many years, he has been conducting research on the history of regional and local communities of medieval and early modern Silesia. From the mediaeval times to 1945, this borderland region was populated by Czech, German and Poles. The diversified cultural, legal and historiographical tradition of the regional society enabled a detailed analysis of factors that bound or disintegrated multi-ethnic societies in the medieval and modern eras.

His special point of interest is cultural and social changes in multi-ethnic border societies of mediaeval and early modern Central Europe. He coordinates the work of the Polish team of the project “Cuius Regio. An analysis of the cohesive and disruptive forces determining the attachment and commitment of (groups of) persons to and the cohesion within region” funded by the European Science Foundation. The fruit of the work was a synthesis consisting of five volumes of changes in regional identity and regional cohesion in Silesia (10th-20th centuries). He directed the project
“Motherland Silesia. The history of local communities in the context of regional, state and national identity (12th-21st centuries)”. The project focused on analysing the local history of several small towns and surrounding villages to trace the differences and similarities of these local trends in the history of the multi-ethnic region of Silesia. He manages the project “Mechanisms of building cohesion in multi-ethnic communities, 10th-21st centuries” with an international team of researchers from Spain, Portugal, Italy, Great Britain, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Japan and Poland in search for the reasons for the peaceful existence of multi-ethnic political communities/states “on the periphery” of medieval and early modern Europe. His last project is “Lexicon of Silesian artists and handicraft artists/Künstlerlexikon Schlesien” – dictionaries of artists-craftsmen from selected communes of Lower Silesia published in Polish and German.
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Europe has a long history of migratory movements. However, over the few last years, the EU member states have received unprecedented numbers of migrants and asylum seekers, often in an unorderly way.

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This process has impacted the relations between migrants and receiving societies and challenged the whole governance of migration and integration. Migration studies is a multidimensional and interdisciplinary field that includes diverse disciplines of science. As a political scientist, Patrycja Matusz focuses mainly on the multilevel governance of migration and integration, relations between migrants and local communities, local integration strategies and education of children with a migratory background.

Currently, Patrycja Matusz has been involved in two Horizont2020 projects. The first one is ADMIGOV (Advance Alternative Migration Governance). This international research team searches for alternative approaches to migration governance, which can be better designed and put into practice. ADMIGOV studies the reality of existing policies and practices on the ground (fieldwork in various locations) to improve migration governance and propose recommendations for the future.
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